Shah Wali Allah made the first attempt to reconcile the two (apparently) contradictory doctrines of wahdat al-wujud (unity of being) of Ibn al-‘Arabi and wahdat al-shuhud (unity in conscience) of Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi. Shaykh Muhyi al-Din ibn al- ‘Arabi, the advocate of wahdat al-wujud, was of the opinion that being in reality is one and God. All other actual and possible beings in the universe are manifestations and states or modes of his Divine Names and Attributes. By the act of creation through the word kun (be), Ibn al-‘Arabi means the descent of Absolute Existence into the determined beings through various stages. This gradual descent of the Absolute Existence is called tanazzulat al-khamsa (five descents) or ta’ayyunat al-khamsa (five determinations) in Sufi terminology. On the other hand, according to Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi, the exponent of the doctrine of wahdat al-shuhud, God and creation are not identical; rather, the latter is a shadow or reflection of the Divines Name and Attributes when they are reflected in the mirrors of their opposite non-beings (a’dam al-mutaqabila). Shah Wali Allah neatly resolved the conflict, calling these differences ‘verbal controversies’ which have come about because of ambiguous language. If we leave, he says, all the metaphors and similes used for the expression of ideas aside, the apparently opposite views of the two metaphysicians will agree. The positive result of Shah Wali Allah’s reconciliatory efforts was twofold: it brought about harmony between the two opposing groups of metaphysicians, and it also legitimized the doctrine of wahdat al-wujud among the mutakallimun (theologians), who previously had not been ready to accept it.
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
وصلى الله على سيدنا محمد و آله و سلم
The strictness of the awliya Allah with regards to not staying in the mosque while in the state of minor hadath (let alone major hadath like janabah/ haidh etc.)
Imam Ash-Sha’rani (ra) said that the Divine Presence is of two categories, the hadrah khas (special) and the hadrah ‘aam (general). Being in the mosque is to be in the special Divine Presence while being outside the mosque you are still in His general Presence.
Being in the hadrah khas requires more adab. From picture 1 below, (excerpt from Muhammadan Covenants)
“From them (the adab) is to busy oneself with ‘ibadah and be in the state of taharah continuously and not sit for one moment in the mosque in the state of minor impurity. He should also not think of himself (or occur in his mind that he is) better than any of the muslims, for that was the sin of iblis which took him out from the Presence of Allah and he became cursed and driven out. These are the main adab, and each adab has its branches.”
“My master ‘Ali Al-Khawwas would take wudhu outside of the mosque or at home whenever he wishes to enter the mosque. He would never enter the mosque in the state of hadath nor take wudhu from the wudhu area in the mosque for fear of entering in the state of hadath, whenever he entered the mosque he would tremble out of awe and would quickly perform his solat and exit saying, ‘Praise be to Allah who has made us left the mosque safely’.”
(Regarding staying in the state of taharah or wudhu continuously)
From those who I (Ash-Sha’rani) have witnessed (to persist in the state of wudhu) from the awliya of this age are…(mentioned some of their names) and from them, the waliy, al-haj Ahmad al-Qawas, one day he heard a man fart while asleep in the mosque and he avoided sleeping the mosque from then one out of fear that he would do the same in the mosque…
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
This is my attempt to fit this poem on the Prophet’s lineage into one of the arabic poetic meter called rajaz. May it help the memorisation of the blessed lineage.
The translation of the text below,
It has been dictated to me by my Grandfather, (may Allah shower mercy on him) this poem attributed to Shaykh Muhammad Bin Muhammad Bin ‘Abd Ar-Rahmān Ad-Dīsī (rahimahullah) (1854-1921).
And it is incumbent upon every legally obligated To know the noble lineage
Muhammad the Chosen from the best of Arabs His father ‘Abdullah, Abdul Muthalib
And Hāshim, Abdu Manaf and Qusayy Likewise Kilab, Murrah, Ka’ab, Luayy
And Ghālib, Fihr and Mālik, An-Nadhar Kinanah, Khuzaimah, be a possessor of sight (O dear reader!)
Mudrikah, Ilyās, Mudhor and Nizār Ma’ad, and ‘Adnān the one by whom is the glory
And there is no news above ‘Adnan Which is relied upon from the historians/genealogists
Shaykh ‘Abd Al-‘Aziz Ad-Dabbagh r.a. mentioned that ‘amal can be classifed into two types. First is personal amal like solat, dhikr, done for the sake of Allah. Second is amal which benefits others like charity.
The first type has effects in this world like increasing your faith, knowledge of Allah, and removing doubts. All of these benefits and strengthens the soul. Its benefit in the akhirah is increase in vision of Allah Exalted is He.
The second type has effects in this world such as increase in sustenance and warding off calamities. Thus it has a bodily benefit. The effects in akhirah consists of food, partners & beautiful sights in paradise etc.
The first is likened to honey which gives strength and healing but not mass. The second is likened to butter which gives mass. This is part of the interpretation of the dream which Abu Bakar As-Siddiq r.a. tried to explain.
قول الغوث عبد العزيز الدباغ عن الحضرة الصوفيةShaykh Abd Al-Aziz Ad-Dabbagh on the Sufi Hadrah, how it appeared, and why it was not practiced by the early generations.
و إنما ظهرت الحضرة في القرن الرابع و سببها أن أربعة أو خمسة من أولياء الله -تعالى- ، و من المفتوح عليهم ، كان لهم أتباع و أصحاب و كانوا -رضي الله تعالى عنهم- في بعض الأحيان ربما شاهدوا عباد الله من الملائكة و غيرهم يذكرون الله -تعالى-، قال : و الملائكة عليهم الصلاة و السلام منهم من يذكر الله بلسانه و بذاته كلها ، فترى ذاته تتحرك يمينا و شمالا و تتحرك أماما و خلفا فكان الولي من هؤلاء الخمسة إذا شاهد ملكا على هذه الحالة تعجبه حالته، فتتأثر ذاته بالحالة التي يشاهدها من الملك ثم تتكيف ذاته بحركة الملك فتتحرك ذاته كما تتحرك ذات الملك و تحكى ذاته ذات الملك ، و هو لا شعور له بما يصدر منه لغيبته في مشاهدة الحق سبحانه، و لا شك في ضعف من هذه حالته و عدم قوته، فإذا رآه أتباعه تحرك بتلك الحركة تبعوه ،فهو يتحرك لحركة الملك ، و هم يتحركون لحركته و يتزيون بزيه الظاهر ،ثم هلك الأشياخ الخمسة أهل الباطن و الصدقرضي الله عنهم، فاشتغل أهل الزي الظاهر بالحضرة ، و زادوا في حركتها، و جعلوا لها آلة ، و تكلفوا لها، و توارثتها الأجيال جيلا بعد جيل … فقد علمت أن سببها ضعف من الأشياخ المذكورين أوجب لهم عدم الضبط ظواهرهم، و أهل القرون الثلاثة -رضي الله عنهم -لم تكن في أزمنتهم و لا سمعت عن أحد منهم، و الله أعلم
AI-Dabbagh said-May Allah be pleased with him: ‘The hadrah appeared in the fourth generation and the cause for it was that there were four or five Friends of Allah -exalted is He -endowed with illumination who had followers and disciples. On certain occasions they had perhaps observed servants of Allah among the angels and others engaged in dhikr of Allah the Sublime.’ He said:
‘There are some angels-blessings and peace be upon them-who remember Allah with their tongue and their whole body. You see their body swaying to the right and to the left, and swaying forward and backward. When one of these five Friends of Allah beheld an angel in this state, the angel’s state filled him with admiration. His body was influenced by the state he beheld on the part of the angel and his body adopted the movement of the angel. His body then swayed just like the angel’s body swayed and his body imitated the angel’s body.
But he was unaware of what issued from him because of his absence in beholding Al-Haq – exalted is He! There is no doubt about the weakness and lack of strength of someone whose state is like this. When his followers saw him swaying with this motion,they followed him. He started to move because of the angel’s motion and they started to move because of his motion. They adorned themselves in his external state.
The five shaykhs, who were people of the interior and sincerity, passed away-May Allah be pleased with them-and the people of mere externalities then occupied themselves with the hadrah. They increased its movement and added musical instruments and took much trouble over it. The generations, one after the other, then handed it on as a legacy.
Thus, you have understood that its origin was a weakness on the part of the above-mentioned shaykhs which led them to have no control over their exteriors. But as for the people of the [first] three generations-Allah be pleased with them-the hadrah didn’t exist in their eras and you heard nothing of it from them. But Allah knows best!’